EXPERIMENT RECORD N° 9515
MIRIAM-2 Balloon Deployment System Test
  1. 2015 • 63rd ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign
  2. 2017 • 68th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign
Physical Sciences:
  • Technology
A310 ZERO-G Airbus
K. Bayler (1), T. Lehmann (1)
(1)  
Mars Society Deutschland e.V.
Balanstrasse 79
81539 München
GERMANY
Tel:  
+49(0)89.480.02.752
e-mail:  
kb.marssociety-d@gmx.de
zero_g@gmx.de
The 68th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign (68th PFC) took place from 27 November 2017 to 08 December 2017 and was conducted on board of Novespace´s Airbus A310 ZERO-G from Mérignac-Bordeaux airport. The first week was dedicated to the preparation and integration into the airplane of the 12 experiments. 5 experiments were selected by ESA´s scientific committees, 6 experiments had been selected by the ESA Education Office for the Fly Your Thesis! programme, and one experiment (MIRIAM-2) by Novespace. During the second week, three parabolic flights (5, 6, 7 December) were performed.

The 63rd ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign (63rd PFC) took place from 26 October 2015 to 06 November 2015 and was conducted from Mérignac-Bordeaux airport. While the first week was dedicated to the preparation of the 11 experiments selected by ESA´s science committees and the experiment integration into the airplane, during the second week three parabolic flights (3, 4, 5 November) were performed.

BACKGROUND

MIRIAM-2 (Main Inflated Reentry Into the earth Atmosphere Mission test) is a spaceflight mission simulating critical functions of the ARCHIMEDES Mars Balloon Mission of the Mars Society Deutschland e.V. (MSD). ARCHIMEDES (Aerial reconnaissance Robot Carrying a High-resolution Imager, a Magnetometer Experiment and Direct Environmental Sensors) shall allow for the first time performing scientific measurements of the Mars atmosphere and magnetic field strength with instruments carried by a balloon, which will be inflated in space, be decelerated by the Mars atmosphere and descend slowly in the Mars atmosphere (Link: https://www.marssociety.de/en/the-miriam-2-mars-simulation-project.html).

The objective of the MIRIAM-2 mission is twofold: 
- deploying a densely packed 4-m balloon in free space, and 
- measuring in aerodynamic loads on the 10-m ARCHIMEDES Mars Balloon to which the balloon will later on be exposed when entering the Mars atmosphere. For that measurement, a sounding rocket mission is planned, since the thin upper Earth atmosphere resembles the expected conditions on Mars. The measurements shall allow validating the aerodynamic flow calculations for the ARCHIMEDES Mars mission, on which the balloon design is based.

The MIRIAM-2 balloon and instrument carrier have been developed and manufactured by the MSD to the specifications of the 10-m Mars Balloon. Its scientific payload is similar to the one for ARCHIMEDES. The balloon will be densely packed into a specific container, deployed in an altitude of about 200 km, inflated and released before starting its free-flight scientific mission.

SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVE
Subject of the experiment during the parabolic flights is the verification of the correct function of the initial balloon deployment, which is crucial for the success of the ARCHIMEDES Mars Balloon Mission. The balloon deployment system consists of the container itself and the associated fully automatic system for deploying the balloon. The parabolic flight experiment shall demonstrate that the balloon is being correctly deployed to its full length of 4 meter after being stored in a densely packed condition. Inflation and release of the balloon are not subject of the test.

RELATED RESEARCH
Archimedes balloon release mechanism and balloon package behaviour under zero gravity conditions
40th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign - 2005

Note:
Parabolic flight is an essential way of getting microgravity, along with drop towers, sounding rockets, recoverable capsules, space shuttles and orbiting stations. Initially used for training astronauts, parabolic flights are now exclusively dedicated to scientific experiments and technological tests of space equipment. Simplicity of preparation and operations, reduced cost, repetition of microgravity phases and opportunity for researchers, present on board, to work directly on the experiments are advantages that can not be found in any other means.

Since spring 2015, ESA is using the Airbus A310 ZERO-G (before the A300 ZERO-G was in operation) owned by Novespace. Novespace is in charge of the programme, the organisation of the parabolic flight campaigns and the flight and ground operations. CNES (French Space Agency), DLR (German Aerospace Agency) and ESA (European Space Agency) are the promoters and sponsors of the programme.
for 63rd PFC in 2015
A fully functional model of the MIRIAM-2 balloon deployment system will be fixed in a test rig, which in turn will be fixed to the aircraft. The balloon will have been packed and in the container beforehand in the development facility using specific tools. There will therefore be only one single test run possible. The balloon container will be opened by a pyrotechnic cable cutter device releasing the balloon by a spring-loaded mechanism. The balloon will then extend to its full length of approximately 1.5 to 2 m without being inflated.

The cable cutter will be activated by the test operator approximately half-way into a flight parabola. The deployed balloon will be captured and safeguarded by a member of the test team.

additionally for 68th PFC in December 2017
This experiment is a redesigned and improved version of a similar experiment in 2015, where a deployment failure happened. A switch box for starting the deployment was implemented into the parabolic flight test rig. Also additional measurement devices were added on the ballute container to record cable cutter activation and the movements of the ballute container. The switch box activation also started the recording of the data. 

The cable cutter was activated by the test operator at the beginning of a flight parabola once the zero-g conditions were confirmed stable by an electronic indication. The deployed balloon was captured and safeguarded by a member of the test team.

APPLICATION OF THE RESEARCH
The results of the experiment shall demonstrate the validity of the design and all functionalities of the MIRIAM-2 balloon storage and deployment devices and of the balloon design and construction itself. The balloon will be tested later-on in order to verify its health condition following the parabolic flight test.

It serves as a preparation of a sounding rocket mission foreseen for 2018. The balloon container, deployment mechanism and electronic surveillance of the 0 g condition and deployment stages will be the same configuration as foreseen for the sounding rocket flight.
RESULTS from the 68th PFC in 2017:

The following goals have been achieved:

  • Inflation hose is unfolded over complete length and not twisted
  • The pre-unfolding was complete (1.6 m, which is within the required 1.5 to 2.5 m)
  • Main packet, hexagon and “side arms” of balloon packet unfolded as required
  • No backward and forward oscillation of pod
  • The deployment speed was 0.96 m/s (required was 1.0 m/s +/- 0.1 m/s)
  • Signals from the end switches were received (also see Figure): 
    • Deployment On
    • Cutter Main
    • Cutter Redundant
    • Pod Release Main
    • Pod Release Redundant
    • Container Open Main
    • Container Open Redundant
  • Both cutters (main and redundant) ignited
  • Videos from all four camera positions were recorded

Therefore the test was successful.

In the acceleration data (see figure) it can be seen that the accelerations were very close to zero at the time of the deployment. Therefore the conditions were close to the real spaceflight, where no residual accelerations will occur. From the video it could be obtained that the duration of the deployment was less than 2 s. Due to the acceleration profile during the parabola the ballute moved quite a lot, but this was no longer relevant for the test result. 

Only the “Container Open Main” and the “Container Open Redundant” switches showed a slight delay < 0.05 s, but this is well within the acceptable time frame.

Also see the following Youtube video with the complete setup and deployment:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PC-G8dU-k7o

RESULTS from the 63rd PFC in 2015:
It was observed that after correct activation of the cable cutters the balloon package only moved by 2-3 cm out of the container, and the “blossoms” didn’t move at all.

It was then tried to push out the balloon manually by pressing on the back side of the container, which also did not work. Not even pulling at the pod could release the balloon. Only after pushing on the back side of the “blossom” in the following parabola the balloon moved out of the container and the blossom fully unfolded. The balloon then was in the pre-inflation state as required.

This means the test is failed since this action needs to happen without manual interaction.

The conclusion is, the spring mechanism on the back side of the „blossom“ is not strong enough to deploy the balloon and has to be made stronger. Therefore the mechanism needs a re-design. It is planned to do force measurements and also ground-based deployment tests with a dummy, before as a final test, another deployment test in zero-g is planned.

[1]  
"https://www.marssociety.de/en/the-miriam-2-mars-simulation-project.html".
[2]  
H. Griebel, B. Häusler, C. Mundt, H. Rapp, (2004), "Project Archimedes: A Novel Approach to Balloon Deployment on Mars", Proceedings of 55th International Astronautical Congress 2004, 4 - 8 October 2004, Vancouver, Canada, IAC-04-Q.P.02.
[3]  
H.N. Teodorescu, H. Griebel, (2004), "Mars and Planetary Science and Technology", Conference Proceedings, Selected papers from EMC 04, 26 - 28 July 2004, Iasi, Romania, ISBN 973-7994-83-3, Performatica Press.
[4]  
B. Grieger, H. Griebel, (2005), "Archimedes - A Balloon Mission to Mars Lead by the German Mars Society", Proceedings of the 3rd International Planetary Probe Workshop, 27 June-1 July 2005, Anavyssos, Greece.
[5]  
C. Mundt, H. Griebel, C. Welch, (2005), "Studies of atmospheric entry of vehicles with very low ballistic coefficient", Proceedings of the 13th AIAA/CIRA International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, 17-20 May 2005, Naples, Italy.
[6]  
(2006), "Erstes Raketenexperiment für deutschen Amateur-Marsballon fehlgeschlagen", https://abenteuer-astronomie.de/erstes-raketenexperiment-fuer-deutschen-amateur-marsballon-fehlgeschlagen/.
[7]  
H. Griebel, (2007), "Archimedes schwebt auf den Mars", Sterne und Weltraum, 4, pp. 36-42.
[8]  
K. Schmidt, (2008), "Student experiments on board REXUS 4 successfully launched", https://spacefellowship.com/news/art7242/student-experiments-on-board-rexus-4-successfully-launched.html.
[9]  
H. Griebel, (2008), "Projekt Archimedes: mit dem Ballon auf den Mars", Space 2009, Verein zur Förderung der Raumfahrt e.V., München, pp. 68-77.
[10]  
(2008), "video sequence of MIRIAM separation project ARCHIMEDES - Mars Balloon", https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCdzdORZjrA, Mars Society Deutschland e.V. / UniBW München.
[11]  
A. Stamminger, M. Czech, H. Griebel, M. Hörschgen, O. Persson, M. Pinzer, J. Rießelmann, A. Shahsavar, (2009), "Rexus-4: Vehicle and Subsystem Design, Flight Performance and Experiments", Proceedings of the 19th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Bad Reichenhall, Germany, 7-11 June 2009, ESA SP-671.
[12]  
A. Stamminger, M. Czech, H. Griebel, M. Hörschgen, O. Persson, M. Pinzer, J. Rießelmann, (2009), "Rexus-4 - Vehicle and Experiments, Outlook on the Rexus/Bexus Student Programme", IAC 2009 - 60th International Astronautical Congress 2009, 12 - 16 October 2009, Daejeon, South Korea, IAC-09-E1.1.2.
[13]  
H. Griebel, (2010), "Reaching High Altitudes on Mars with an Inflatable Hypersonic Drag Balloon (Ballute)", ISBN 978-3-8348-9911-8.
[14]  
(2016), "Miriam und Archimedes für den Mars", Space 2017, Verein zur Förderung der Raumfahrt e.V., München, pp. 90-97.
click on items to display

Figure 1: The hard ware as used during the 63rd PFC. credit: Mars Society Deutschland

Figure 2: The hard ware as used during the 63rd PFC. credit: Mars Society Deutschland

Figure 3: Test setup in the A310 (63rd PFC) in deployment configuration. credit: Mars Society Deutschland

Figure 4: Pod after activation of cable cutters, with pod only deployed by 2-3 cm in the 1st of the two test parabolas during the 63rd PFC. credit: Mars Society Deutschland

Figure 5: Deployed balloon after manual help in the 2nd test parabola during the 63rd PFC. State of the deployed balloon is as required. credit: Mars Society Deutschland

Figure 6: The balloon after unfolding (with manual help by Frédéric Gai from Novespace) during the 63rd PFC. credit: Mars Society Deutschland

Figure 7: Close-up of the experiment hardware, used during the 68th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign (68th PFC) in December 2017. photo credits: NOVESPACE

Figure 8: Layout of the experiment set-up as used during the 68th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign (68th PFC) in December 2017. photo credits: NOVESPACE

Figure 9: Close-up of the experiment hardware, used during the 68th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign (68th PFC) in December 2017. photo credit: Mars Society Deutschland

Figure 10: Close-up of the experiment hardware short after the deployment of the balloon during the 68th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign (68th PFC) in December 2017. photo credits: Mars Society Deutschland

Figure 11: Deployment directions of the balloon. photo credits: Mars Society Deutschland

Figure 12: Close-up of the experiment hardware short after the deployment of the balloon during the 68th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign (68th PFC) in December 2017. photo credits: NOVESPACE

Figure 13: Close-up of the experiment hardware short after the deployment of the balloon during the 68th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign (68th PFC) in December 2017. photo credits: NOVESPACE

Figure 14: The unfolded balloon after it was deployed during the 68th ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign (68th PFC) in December 2017. photo credits: NOVESPACE

Figure 15: Acceleration data during parabola no 27. credit: Mars Society Deutschland
http://eea.spaceflight.es
a.int/attachments/parabol
icflights/ID5cb495e6d08c7
.pdf

Figure 16: Data of the deployment sensors. credit: Mars Society Deutschland

A. Stamminger, M. Czech, H. Griebel, M. Hörschgen, O. Persson, M. Pinzer, J. Riesselmann, A. Shahsavar, (2009), "Rexus-4: Vehicle and Subsystem Design, Flight Performance and Experiments", Proceedings of the 19th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Bad Reichenhall, Germany, 7-11 June 2009, ESA SP-671.
 
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